Job requirements that have been formally written, enables the general manager of a service department to evaluate each employee, based upon a specific set of standards. It is easier to evaluate the functionality of the team as a whole, knowing that each employee has a thorough understanding of what is expected of him or her. Should there be a deficiency in labor, it will be easier to identify specific tasks and duties that an additional employee will be required to perform. In addition, when the service manager is interviewing prospective job applicants, he or she will be able to explain fully what is required for each specific position. The service manager may then be able to make better decisions when hiring. When performing a job analysis, there are four main systematic approaches to job analysis.
The Position Analysis Questionnaire System analyzes each job utilizing 194 different worker-oriented tasks. It uses a five point grading scale that weighs each task as it relates to a specific job. The results are quantifiable and can be subjected to statistical analysis. Utilizing this system allows jobs to be grouped based on common characteristics.
The Critical Incident Method uses a system where employees or their managers in specific positions are interviewed or through a self-report statement written by the employee. Through this process, important job tasks are identified for job success. After information is gathered, the analyst then writes separate task statements that represent important job activities associated with a specific job. Typically, each job description will contain between five and ten important task statements.
The Task Inventory Analysis method is an organization-specific list of tasks and their basic descriptions used as a basis to identify components of jobs. This method was pioneered by the United States Air Force to analyze jobs held by Air Force specialists. This method differs from the Position Analysis Questionnaire system; questionnaires in this method can be tailor-made to a specific organization.
The Competency-Based Analysis defines jobs in terms of tasks, duties, processes, and skills necessary for job success. It primarily focuses an assessment of a set of skills and knowledge needed for decision-oriented and knowledge-intensive jobs. The chief problem with this system is that technological advances make job descriptions obsolete very quickly because the same skills and knowledge may no longer be needed in order to perform the same job.
The bottom line is that human resources, along with management must decide which job analysis format is best suited for their particular business. A progressive management team needs to be prepared to change their job analysis style when the old is no longer suitable. By staying on top of this important aspect of managing human capital, a company can acquire and keep a team of personnel that is competent, effective, and efficient.
Reference: Managing Human Resources, 15th Edition by George Bohlander and Scott Snell